No African man can ever aspire to develop his country home without a prerequisite question of the Civil War In Africa: Causes And Solutions to all the citizens.
Before we delve fully into this topic, here are the things you will learn in this write-up;
- the civil war in Africa 2020
- causes of civil war in Africa
- African wars history
In the history of Africa, it can be observed that the continent is littered with wars that led to lives and properties worth of a significant cost and cause more disunity among its inhabitants. From Nigeria to Liberia to Sierra Leone to Rwanda to Sudan, to Somalia and the entire African nations, the story of bitter civil war is told. Why is Africa the second-most populous county of the universe, the most violent people of the world? Take your time to get out of the numerous causes of civil war in Africa as it is given below, but before that, lets me point your mind to the picture of what the continent is made up of. As has been said above, the continent of Africa is the second-largest in the world and not alone; it has more population after Asia been the most populous continent in the world. Over 1.2 billion people occupied the land of Africa from its north to the south and west to the east all across. The continent harbor 54 recognized countries that call Africa home. Africa is sometimes referred to as the mother continent due to the belief and scientific inquiry that the ancestral home of humanity is somewhere in the Eastern part of the continent based on exhibits of human relics found in the area. Africans are heterogeneous in the sense that thousands of ethnic groups and tribes live on the continent. This accord for the constant conflict in the continent as you will get to know more about below. Some of the remarkable civil wars to have been fought in Africa are; Sudan between 1995 and 1990, Chad 1965 to 1985, Angola since 1974, Liberia 1980 to 2003, Nigeria from 1967 to 1970, Somalia 1999 to 1993 and Burundi, Rwanda and Sierra Leone that all experienced their civil wars between 1991 to 1995. There are several grounds for civil war in Africa, and this is part of the reasons that there is no single solution to all of them. However, this writes up will discuss some of the recognized foundations of civil war in Africa and also prefer conceivable solutions to them.
CIVIL WAR IN AFRICA: CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS
- Ethnicity and Tribal Loyalty
African consist of thousands of discrete ethnic units that tolerate one another for several years. The issue of ethnicity or tribal loyalty is not limited to Africa alone; it is undeniably a comprehensive challenge to the global world. According to the United Nations, of the over 180 nations in the world, only a limited number are ethnically homogeneous. Yes, with ethnic multiplicity comes cultural differences; its first shortcoming is the tendency for people to align alongside ethnic lines. Ethnicity has long sowed the bad seed of hatred, distrust, and suspicion amid members of various ethnic groups that have often led to civil strife and disorder. Evils related to ethnicity comprise; ethnic cleansing, sidelining of some tribes or marginalization within the same state, and also political dominance of some tribes by others. This is one of the causing factors of the war mentioned above. The implications of these wars are still fresh, and the trademark it left persistently retells us of the undesirable impact of unrestrained hatred for members of opposing ethnic groups. Ethnicity driven civil wars have been fought in Nigeria, Liberia, Uganda, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Congo, Sierra Leone, and many nations of the Africa continent.
- Demographics shift
The current division of Africa intonations has also served as a driven force for wars in the continent. The making of African states by the colonial master was prepared illogically on a map without the pre-knowledge of the natural composition of the people living therein. This result in the creation of states that divides some tribe in one hand, and on the other, rival group was combined. This illogical formation of boundaries for African nations with no regard for ethnic and cultural affinities and differences resulted in some ethnic groups being spread across several countries and some groups that are on the longer edge forced to cohabit in the same territory in some cases like that of Nigeria. Some other notable illustrations to this are; the division of the Akan speaking people between Ghana and Cote d’ Ivoire, the splitting of Ewe ethnic group between Ghana and Togo, division of Fulani among nation of Nigeria, Niger and Chad where they are consistently a minority group and also the Yoruba having its tribesmen being cut off into the Benin Republic where they are considered a minority. Before the gaining of freedom of African nations, the issue of the border drawn was not much of a problem because they are still under one control. Nevertheless, since independence, pressures, tension, struggles, and conflict have arisen all over Africa. It is noteworthy that in many African nations, inter-tribal wars are being fought persistently, probably on/overland.
- Poor Leadership
Excellent leadership and stable governance is a big debacle that Africans has been unable to solve since African states became independent. Recently, there are limited numbers of African leaders who are ready to work or that has the interest of the people in mind, which in turn leads to a shortfall in the development of the continent. This can be said to be one of the leading causes of civil war in Africa because many groups will felt marginalized in the system. This is also responsible for the lack of political integration and harmony in nearly all African states. Because most African nations are not homogeneous, qualities such as administrative diplomacy, political tolerance, and also social justice are necessary ingredients for the development of African countries. Regrettably, the dominant class in most African countries have failed in the provision of these virtues that can make them be aligned with what Yoruba call Omoluwabi (responsible child). The failure of these unpatriotic and feeble beast calling themselves leaders has decelerated the process of national integration in many states as well as stuck development. In some instances, poor leadership has ignited full-scale wars that have endangered the very existence of some of these sovereign African nations. Take as a case, the Biafran war of 1967 to 1970, which threatened to overturn the presence of the most populous country in Africa Nigeria, was borne out of political segregation of the Igbo tribe. Awkwardly, years after that civil war ended, the issues that led to people taking up arms are were left unattended to. Quality leadership is vital to the Confederacy of tribes into a single indissoluble entity. It is, therefore, imperative that quality leadership be planted in African to put an end to ethnicity driven civil wars eternally. The practice politics of inclusion and not divide and rule should be put in place by the policymaker and the ruling class to stop the menace.
The focal point of most of the wars in Africa is corruption. Crime is a worm that has eaten deep into the heart of developing Africa, thus hindering the continent from living up to its capabilities. The major obstruct in the wheel of progress of Africa is corruption though it is naturally endowed with both human and natural resources. This is the reason the African continent is yet to take what is rightfully hers amongst continents of the world. Embezzlement and misappropriation of public funds are a common occurrence in virtually all African states which are working mechanism in tackling and arresting development efforts, socio-economic transformation, and political integration across Africa. It is no longer a myth, but the reality that the resources of the continent grossly mismanaged, and the masses are feeling the effect of this the most. The weights are getting glum, tensions are always on the rise, and this had led to crises in many countries in the continent. Though many anti-corruption mechanisms have been put in place, it now seems to be working because many political leaders use these mechanisms to witch hunt their political enemies.
It is no news that a significant percentage of the poorest people in the world live in Africa. Many house hoods only manage to survive daily as they live below $2 per day. This high level of scarcity living in Africa is a direct effect of the harsh ecological conditions, corruption, and, of course, dept incur in the international community by some African nations, which severely abridged the living conditions of the masses. Also, it is noteworthy that most of the world’s largest deserts are in Africa, which will prune people living around such places to experience drought, famine, and lot more, which will ultimately bring harsh living conditions for the people. The connection between poverty and civil wars is very apparent as the famous adage said; a hungry man is an angry man. When people can barely feed themselves, and they see life as not worth living, they will be enthusiastic about taking up arms and go to war not caring to die or live because hunger has shown them another side of life, which made them not to fear death. Let look at it from the team that the people have access to basic needs such as food, water, and shelter, and there is a lesser propensity for them to go to war.
- The proliferation of Weapons and Instruments of War
Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) proliferation is one of the significant issues confronting many Africa nations. This can be of the reason that they are cheap and affordable, available, and accessible. According to statistics, it is estimated that about 100 million of these weapons are in circulation in the continent. The availability, accessibility, and usability of these ammunitions and guns have led to and driven civil wars in many African nations.
Possible Solutions To Resolve The Causes Of Civil Wars In Africa.
- First of all, if one is to eradicate civil war in the continent of Africa, the global quality of leadership should be put to use in all the African. Because the head is right, the whole body need will have peace; thus, quality leadership is key to the development of any people.
- The famous adage said; United will stand and divided will fall. If Africa wants to get rid of constant civil war, integration in all ramifications is critical, both social, political, economic, and many more. Working mechanisms should be put in place across Africa to guarantee that the people live in unity.
- Also, if Africa continent is to curb civil war, individual nation and its governments with the efforts of the Confederation of African states as a body should be holistic in their approach in tackling corruption. It seems impossible to get rid of crime, but it can be subdued and reduced to the barest minimum.
- The instrument of war and weapons should not be made available and accessible to the people. Therefore, the government must ensure that SALW currently being distributed in Africa should be apprehended.
- The government of every nation in Africa and the international community should endeavor to provide basic amenities and infrastructure for their people to tackle poverty and its influence on the continent.
- Human Rights should be protected, and also the rule of law should be upheld in African states. Doing these will ease some of the tension across Africa.
Conclusion On Civil War In Africa: Causes And Solutions.
Civil wars, as experienced on the continent of Africa, have immensely destabilized the development of the second-largest continent in the world. Yes, nearly all Africa nations have cases of civil unrest, conflict, and wars, which are caused by so many factors and indignations, some of which have been discussed above. Indeed, the causes of civil war in Africa have been examined; solutions have been proffered, African leaders now must buy the idea and put them into implementation, which is my belief that it will go a long way in curbing the menace in the continent.
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